The early Scotland

About 18,000 years ago there was not much going on in Scotland. It was the culmination of the last ice age and until today’s South Wales and the English Midlands, the country was covered by glaciers. Basically, Scotland does not yet exist – not even by name.

As around 11,000 BC the ice began to melt, the land was initially more of a tundra with permafrost soil. Nevertheless, the vegetation gradually returned. With the constant warming of the climate of the following millennia, a primeval wilderness of e.g. Birches, pines and lindens, as well as a large animal population (reindeer, aurochs, foxes etc.). First Stone Age settlements of hunters and gatherers (about 7,000 BC) were built along the northern coast and on the islands.

Around 4,000 BC Scotland achieved the neolitic Revolution and people became sedentary. Over the still existing land bridge between southern England, the Netherlands and Denmark (in the newer research Doggerland called) new agricultural technology came in and they began livestock breeding and agriculture.

Approximately 2,500 BC reached the European bell jar culture Scotland. With her began the transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age. It is believed that manufacturing techniques such as cup ceramics or bronze alloys came through smaller groups of Craftsmen and traders. In hilly areas settlements were built on terraces and blacksmiths made Axes and Swords made of Bronze.

In 1159 BC a volcano erupted on Iceland, darkening the sky for 18 years. The result was a heavy agricultural giant with famines, which gave up cultivation in the Highlands and devoted himself only to livestock. During this time, there was an increase in sacrificial rituals to soothe the weather gods. Finds of increased weapons production and buried bronze treasures, suggest war and raids.
Settlements began to be surrounded by palisades and on hills first hill forts (hill fortifications) emerged, large fortifications with wide palisade ramparts. It is believed that also until 500 BC P-Celtic came to Britain as a new Language.