gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam
Father: William I.
1st Joan, Daughter of King John
2nd Mary de Coucy
1 Son (from Mary)
12/1214 in Sone
12/1214 to 1249
William I. followed by his Son Alexander.
One year after his Coronation, Alexander faced an Uprising by the Clans MacWilliam and MacHeth, who were Opponents of the royal Family, but could end it with loyal Troops. In the same year he tried with the help of english Nobles to depose the english King John Lackland, but after his Death in 1216, Alexander joined a Peace Treaty, the new King Henry III. sealed with the french Crown Prince Louis VIII.
Alexander deepened the good relations in 1221 by marrying Henry’s Sister Joan in June of the year.
Her influence on the scottish Court was very low, which was partly due to their young Age (10 years). Due to the strong influence of Alexander’s Mother Ermengarde, he and Joan alienated, which also Henry III. noted and provided Johanna Mansions in York. From there she started a Pilgrimage in 1237 despite a severe Illness and died in 1238 in Essex in the Arms of her Brother.
Alexander further strengthened Scotland’s position and ended Border Disputes with England in 1237 in the ‘Treaty of York’ by means of a compromise in which he recognized the line between Tweed and Solway as the Border. Then Alexander married in May 1239 Marie de Coucy, who gave birth the future King Alexander III.
The Peace with England was briefly interrupted in 1243 when Henry III. threatened with an Invasion of Scotland, whereupon Alexander sent his Army to the south. Since no interest on the part of the Nobles of England in a War existed, they forced Henry to sign a peace treaty in 1244. After that was over, Alexander tried to reintegrate the Hebrides, who still connected to Norway.
The attempt to buy the Islands failed because, Ewen the Lord of Argyll was loyal to the norwegian King and rejected Alexander. Therefore, Alexander tried to convince Ewen with the aid of his Fleet, but fell ill at the Island Kerrera and died in July 1249.