gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric
Father: Henry, Earl of Northumberland
Mother: Ada de Warenne
Ermengarde, Granddaughter of Henry I.
12/1165 in Scone
12/1165 to 1214
William I. -also known as William the Lion, William Dunkeld and William Canmore- was the Grandson of David I. and younger Brother of his Predecessor Malcolm IV. With 49 years, it was the longest Regency of a scottish Monarch.
Since he had a high physical strength and stubbornness against his Brother, it earned him the Nickname ‘The Rough’ (gaelic An Garbh), but as Malcolm, failed his attempts to conquer Northumbria back.
During his Reign, he was not called ‘The Lion’.
The Name he got later with respect to his Coat of Arms, the Lion Rambant. He also negotiated the ‘Auld Alliance’, in which the States of Scotland, France and Norway pledged to defend each other. In particular, the Relationship between Scotland and France was very close, while Norway held back sharply. In 1152, William inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria, but had to cede this in 1157 to the english King Henry II.
In a campaign in 1174 against the english Army, which he personally led, he was captured and brought first to Nothampton, then to Falaise in Normandy. There he had to sign an Agreement recognizing Henry II. as his feudal Lord and pledging to pay for the cost of parallel occupation of Scotland, to get his Kingdom back and go home. Furthermore, Henry had the right to appoint the future Bride, Williams, so that he married in September 1186 Ermengarde (Irmgard), the gGranddaughter of Henry I. and got as a dowry Edinburgh Castle. The Agreement was dissolved in 1189 by the new King of England Richard Lionheart and William received as compensation 10,000 marks Silver to finance the third Crusade.
William died in Stirling in 1214 and was buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he founded.