from 1603, James I. of England
Father: Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley
Mother: Mary I.
Anna of Denmark
07/1567 in Stirling Castle
1572 to 1603 Scotland
1603 to 1625 Scotland, England and Ireland
As James VI. after the abdication of his Mother Mary I. in July 1567 at Stirling Castle was crowned King, he was just one year old.
His Childhood James spent in the Household of John Erskine, Earl of Mar, who also ruled over Scotland after James Stewart, Earl of Moray and Matthew Stewart as Regent. 1572 James Douglas, Earl of Morton took over the Regency.
While the first three Regents were each murdered, James -when he assumed power himself in 1572 at the age of 12 years- had James Douglas executed for 19 proven serious crimes and tried to free his Mother from captivity with french Help. When this failed, he began negotiations with Elizabeth I., at least to reaffirm his claim to the english Throne.
1586 came to the ‘Treaty of Berwick’, on which the future offensive defensive Alliance against an Invasion of the catholic Countries of France and Spain is based. In addition, the exercise of the protestant Faith and James was promised an annual Pension £ 4,000.
Even when his Mother was executed half a year later, although he protested against the Execution, he remained in the treaty, prompting James to adopt a more reserved Policy towards Elizabeth.
In August 1589 he married Anna, the Daughter of the danish King Frederick II., and finally repeated the Ceremony in November in Oslo in personal frame. The reason for this were storms, which forced them to make this stopover.
During a witch trial in Copenhagen, Anna Koldings confessed under torture to having triggered these storms with five other women through witchcraft in order to kill the royal couple. When James, who was convinced of the existence of witches, found out about this trial, he also personally held witch trials of about 70 people in North Berwick. In addition, he wrote the work Daemonology from 1591 to 1597, in which he dealt with the subject of magic or witchcraft. He wanted to push the witch hunts forward again, which were severely curbed under Elizabeth I. In 1604 Jacob issued a new, stricter witchcraft law, but at the same time warned of the dangers of prosecution for unproven allegations. This law was repealed in 1736.
Beginning in 1600, James prepares the takeover of the english Throne with the help of Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury. Since they were very careful in the transition, when Elizabeth died childless in 1603, went smoothly from James and James mounted as James I. of England its Throne. For the Scots it was as if, after the previous aggression by England, they would offer their King.
Except for one last visit in 1617, James stayed in England and ruled Scotland by Letters, for which the previous Postal Service was improved. His attempt to open the Kingdom of England to his scottish Subjects, as well as Merchants, Councilors, etc., failed because the English rejected every Scotsman.
James’ Apiration was to truly unite the individually-led Countries and to establish the Concept of Britain not only geographically but also politically. For this he mixed the english and scottish Flag for ‘Union Jack’ and had new Coins minted. He also described himself as King of Great Britain, France and Ireland and spoke only of North and South Britain, instead of England and Scotland. In the meantime, James had to solve England’s problems caused by Elizabeth’s rule, such as the Crown’s lack of funding, attacks on the anglican Church, or unresolved Ireland. He was mostly in conflict with Parliament. While wishing to broaden his powers, the king saw himself as the Sole Ruler and had tremendous problems opening up new sources of finance through the existing System of Government.
In 1605 there was even an Attack on the King and the Parliament, which was thwarted at the last minute and went down in History as the ‘Gunpowder Conspiracy’.
The conflicting Interests of the King and Parliament resulted in James disbanding Parliament (1607-10; 1611-21).
After the Parliament was against the Marriage of his Son Charles with the catholic Princess Maria-Anna of Spain, he dissolved it in February 1622 final.
James died in March 1625.
Parts of James’ Life can be found in the second Part of the 2004 BBC ‘Mary Stuart – Blood, Terror and Betrayal’ (original Title: Gunpowder, Treason and Plot). There you will find, also in the Comic ‘V for Vendetta’ of 1982 and the 2005 same-named Film, the attack on the Parliament again.